winchester model 12 trench gun
winchester model 12 trench gun (also known as the Model 12, or M12) is a pump-action shotgun with an external tube magazine and an internal hammer.
Over the course of its 51-year high-rate production life, the Perfect Repeater, as it was known at the time, basically set the standard for pump-action shotguns.
Nearly two million Model 12 shotguns were produced in various grades and barrel lengths from August 1912 until they were first withdrawn by Winchester in May 1964.
Initially chambered solely for 20 gauge, the 12 and 16 gauge versions were released in 1913 (first listed in 1914 catalogs), followed by the 28 gauge version in 1934.
Instead, a scaled-down version of the Model 12 called as the Model 42 was created in.410, which was directly derived from scaled drawings of the Model 12.
The Winchester Model 1912 (reduced to Model 12 in 1919) was the next step up from the Winchester Model 1897 hammer-fired shotgun, which had evolved from the Winchester Model 1893 shotgun before that.
T.C. Johnson, a Winchester engineer, invented the Model 12, which was based in part on John M. Browning’s M1893/97 design in that it used a sliding forearm or “pump action” to cycle the mechanism.
It was only available in 20 gauge at first (12 and 16 gauge guns were not sold until late 1913). The Model 12 internal hammer pump-action shotgun was a huge hit.